Hydrogen is a zero-carbon fuel, and it comes in three basic colours: grey, blue and green. The carbon footprint of gray hydrogen is somewhat worse than that of methane and would not qualify as a low-carbon heat option. Production of gray hydrogen would release CO from both byproduct chemistry and combustion. as a byproduct of industrial chemical processes, but there is currently no domestic producer of zero or low carbon hydrogen. In most cases this means green hydrogen is more expensive than both grey and blue, but at the lower end of the range it is cost-competitive with blue. A chemical reaction occurs creating hydrogen and carbon monoxide. renewable energy: grid electricity. Planetary Hydrogen. light duty/medium duty, heavy duty, and forklift) Credits are saleable once generated, they never expire 5 Compliance Timelines Upload Deadlines Submit Deadlines Q1 Reporting May 15 June 30 Q2 Reporting August 14 September 30 Q3 Reporting November 14 December 31 By Hamish Penman 26/08/2021, 12:01 am Updated: 31/08/2021, 10:09 am GRAY +7.5: BROWN +13.4: BLACK +13.4: WHITE: LEGEND. Capturing the greenhouse gases mitigates the environmental impacts on the planet. 2021-01-0047. Other methods of hydrogen production include biomass gasification, zero-CO 2-emission methane As a by-product, grey hydrogen isnt produced from scratch and cannot be entirely substituted with low-carbon hydrogen. But the key to having hydrogen help transition the world to net zero emissions is to ensure that the carbon is produced with a low carbon intensity. Green hydrogen is produced from water through an electrolysis process by employing renewable electricity. Blue hydrogen is sometimes described as low-carbon hydrogen as the steam reforming process doesnt actually avoid the creation of greenhouse gases. (3)Policies designed to stimulate clean hydrogen production and use throughout the U.S. economy should be fuel agnostic and technology neutral, and focus on the carbon intensity of CO 2 hydrogen production method. Grey hydrogen can be produced inexpensively using coal or natural gas, but it has a significant carbon footprint. A hydrogen economy is an increasingly popular solution to lower global carbon dioxide emissions. As of 2020, the majority of hydrogen (95%) is produced from fossil fuels by steam reforming of natural gas and other light hydrocarbons, partial oxidation of heavier hydrocarbons, and coal gasification. Most of the worlds hydrogen production consists of grey hydrogen, produced via steam methane reforming (SMR), which forms both hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The researchers calculated that the carbon footprint to create blue hydrogen is more than 20 per cent greater than using either natural gas or coal directly for heat and 60 per cent greater than using diesel oil for heat. Water electrolysis is only as clean as its electricity source. A conventional SMR gray hydrogen system will emit between 1215 kgCO2/kgH2, and a coal-based process as much as 20 kgCO2/kgH2. The colour coding shows the level of delivery risk, from credible (green) through to insufficient (red). Shades of grey: Hydrogen production today. Grey hydrogen. to make grey and blue hydrogen), methane and carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions from extraction and processing will affect the total carbon intensity of the product. A hydrogen economy is an increasingly popular solution to lower global carbon dioxide emissions. Gray Hydrogen is a zero-carbon fuel, and it comes in three basic colours: grey, blue and green. Currently, fossil-based hydrogen without carbon capture, known as gray hydrogen, can deliver less than $1.50/kg H 2 costs while carbon capture can add $0.10/kg to $0.30/kg. Grey hydrogen is produced in the same way as blue, but without capturing the carbon. Grey hydrogen can be produced inexpensively using coal or natural gas, but it has a significant carbon footprint. Lignin has a weight composition of about 54% carbon, 6% hydrogen, and 30% oxygen, while cellulose has a weight composition of about 44% carbon, 6% hydrogen, and 49% oxygen. alternative hydrogen production technologies and pathways Addresses the need for low-carbon hydrogen in various regions (e.g., California) Assist FCT Office with planning Inform FCTO about environmental impacts and potential GHG reduction of the different hydrogen production technologies and pathway options

electricity used to produce hydrogen, both from the grid and via private wire from a low carbon generator. Experts estimate that this process captures up to 90 per cent of the carbon, leading Pembina to conclude that (blue hydrogen) has low to moderate carbon intensity. However, if the CO2 is emitted from fossil fuel hydrogen, it is called grey hydrogen. water. Some big industrial players, like Engie, have set an explicit cost target for green hydrogen to reach grid parity with grey hydrogen by 2030. Commercialization of e-methanols two inputs, carbon from direct air or point source capture and hydrogen from renewable energy powered electrolysis, is nascent, and there is a limited supply of sustainable biomass for cellulosic bio-methanol. In recent years, colours have been usedto identify different methods of hydrogen production and the carbon intensity 3 of the process. Vehicles using hydrogen produced from steam methane reformation and electrolysis using current grid electricity do not perform better than diesel ICEV; grey hydrogen is to be avoided. Grey hydrogen is hydrogen produced from steam methane reformers (SMRs) in the ammonia, refining and methanol sectors. In researching the blog I couldnt find any strong sources of information where the various ends to end process carbon intensities have been calculated. Life cycle carbon intensity of hydrogen production Hydrogen is often oversimplified and associated with a color based on the source of the molecule. Hydrogen has potential as a clean fuel, depending on how its produced. To qualify as low-carbon hydrogen, conventional production must be coupled with carbon capture and utilization or storage (CCUS), Today grey hydrogen costs between $0.90 and $1.78 per kilogram, blue hydrogen ranges from $1.20 to $2.60 per kilogram, and green hydrogen costs range from $3.00 to $8.00 per kilogram. Given a nominal power price of 45/MWh supplied under a PPA, the price of green hydrogen would be 3.39/kg. Blue and gray. GAIL plans to use grey hydrogen in the mixing plans initially before switching to green hydrogen, the former being extracted through carbon-intensive methods using methane or natural gas, while the latter uses zero-emission hydrolysis of water for extraction. Create state-level awareness programs that showcase Utahs existing hydrogen work, educate the public, and cultivate potential end * In the United States, gray hydrogen is produced almost exclusively with natural gas; emissions values reflect the use of natural gas for However, storage is costly and has logistical challenges.

Sources: 1. The former is to use an annual grid emission average in line with current DEFRA methodology, while the latter is to use the actual carbon factor of the generator itself using an LCA of the carbon content of the electricity it produces. emissions tradeoffs of various hydrogen production, delivery, and distribution options under consideration for fuel cell vehicles. Scaling up green hydrogen will be essential to helping global economies to achieve net zero emissions by 2050 and limit global temperature rises to 1.5C. carbon intensity compared to traditional grey hydrogen. A Carbon Intensity Analysis of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Pathways. Green hydrogen is produced by using renewable energy to power the electrolysis of water. Extracting hydrogen from its compounds requires a lot of energy. CARBON INTENSITY OF HYDROGEN PRODUCTION WELL TO GATE. The fossil fuel industry is hyping hydrogen of all kinds as a low-carbon replacement for all sorts of uses of fossil fuelsfrom powering vehicles and heavy industry to heating buildings. Carbon intensity is colour blind Hydrogen is a zero-carbon fuel, and it comes in three basic colours: grey, blue and green.

A leading European research body has hit back at claims blue hydrogen is difficult to justify due to its carbon emissions. as a byproduct of industrial chemical processes, but there is currently no domestic producer of zero or low carbon hydrogen. The International Energy Agency (IEA) states that 1 kilogram of green hydrogen, containing about 33.3 kWh, comes in at 3.50 to 5, which is In reality, due to the emissions intensity of creating blue or gray hydrogen. Mike Kelland in Lab. While the plan is to capture and store the gas, the question remains This technology is known as Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). Hydrogen is a new low carbon solution which can help the UK to achieve net zero by 2050, and our Sixth Carbon Budget target by 2035. From this point, 2 pathways are emerging: The CO2 is emitted into the atmosphere grey hydrogen. The distance from the dashed grey baseline to the solid black government pathway shows how far each sector needs to cut emissions to meet the sixth carbon budget, covering 2033-2037. What were concerned with is the carbon intensity of that hydrogen, Keehn said. Most of the hydrogen produced in Canada today is categorized as grey, or high carbon intensity. Citation: IRENA (2020), Green Hydrogen: A guide to policy making, International Renewable Energy Agency, Abu Dhabi ISBN: 978-92-9260-286-4 ABOUT IRENA number of countries are pledging to reach net-zero carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions by mid-century with the goal of limiting temperature rise to 1.5C. New Initiative Launched to Better Define Carbon Intensity for Hydrogen. Hydrogen produced from coal may be called brown hydrogen, and hydrogen produced from natural gas or petroleum might be referred to as grey hydrogen. But for the production of green hydrogen, there are still technological barriers to be overcome. Graham Cooley, ITM CEO, said: Were now in a position where green hydrogen all over the world is lower cost than blue hydrogen, lower cost than grey hydrogen too, forget the carbon capture and storage (CCS).. Present hydrogen applications wherein clean hydrogen may temporarily replace grey hydrogen generation, generally with modest upgrading, and eliminate the 830 Mt of generated CO 2 include: In 2019, 70m tons of hydrogen were produced worldwide, 69% by steam reforming of natural gas, 27% by coal gasification.

Hydrogens potential for decarbonization depends on how the hydrogen is producedand used. Some "grey" hydrogen is produced in B.C. The most common colors discussed in the color model are Green, Blue, Grey and Black. A Carbon Intensity Analysis of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Pathways. Grey hydrogen is hydrogen produced from steam methane reformers (SMRs) in the ammonia, refining and methanol sectors. New Initiative Launched to Better Define Carbon Intensity for Hydrogen. Figure 3. NREL Hydrogen Analysis (H2A) Production Models, Version 3.2108, Central SMR without CCUS 2. Carbon Intensity (CI) value (fuel pathway) Vehicle type (e.g. From grey and blue to green hydrogen. Achieving the deep or full To meet net-zero-emission ambitions, low-carbon hydrogen production must increase rapidly. Coke from coal is grey, hard, and porous and has a heating value of 29.6 MJ/kg. The carbon intensity is generated using ARs simplified D -RD GREET calculator, and includes all supply chain processes from renewable feedstock collection or production to the delivery of the finished RD. Some "grey" hydrogen is produced in B.C. The carbon-intensive hydrogen traditionally made from fossil fuels is known, colloquially, as gray hydrogen. Hydrogen is a zero-carbon fuel, and it comes in three basic colours: grey, blue and green. Clean hydrogen is currently costly to produce, c. 1.3-2x higher for blue and . As a by-product, grey hydrogen isnt produced from scratch and cannot be entirely substituted with low-carbon hydrogen. Shell is working on a number of low-carbon hydrogen production projects with potential capacity of over 950 ktpa (Shell share). 96% of todays hydrogen production is derived from fossil fuels. This technology is known as Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). By Hamish Penman 26/08/2021, 12:01 am Updated: 31/08/2021, 10:09 am This could aid climate goals because hydrogen only emits water when burned and can be made without releasing CO2. Although these energy sources can be diverse, the most popular hydrogen production method is carbon dioxide intensive. Why hydrogen will remain a carbon-intensive solution until we can produce it cleanly Aug 18, 2021.

Grey hydrogen ate easily between hydrogens life cycle carbon intensity. Blue hydrogen is currently attracting attention as a realistic alternative because it has a significantly lower CO2 impact on the environment than gray hydrogen, making it more sustainable overall. If the carbon dioxide and other pollutants from making grey hydrogen are captured and stored, it becomes "blue" hydrogen, but the cost jumps to between $1.34 and $1.85 per kilogram. Carbon intensity is colour blind. Blue hydrogen is currently attracting attention as a realistic alternative because it has a significantly lower CO2 impact on the environment than gray hydrogen, making it more sustainable overall. The ammonia industry has informally adopted a color scheme to describe the carbon intensity of the different methods for making ammonia. Ammonia is a chemical compound that contains three hydrogen molecules and one nitrogen molecule, and, like hydrogen, it releases no carbon dioxide when burned in a thermal power plant. Gray hydrogen is made from gas reforming without carbon controls. Green hydrogen is producing by splitting a water molecule using electrolysis powered by renewable electricity (see Appendix 2). Carbon intensity is colour blind. In addition, carbon dioxide is a byproduct of blue hydrogen production. A leading European research body has hit back at claims blue hydrogen is difficult to justify due to its carbon emissions. Hydrogen production is the family of industrial methods for generating hydrogen gas.

When it comes to hydrogen for us, were color agnostic. EIA is partnering with SBI BioEnergy to produce hydrogen on demand using renewable natural gas, which the airport says is 90% less carbon intensive than producing gray hydrogen. Emission intensity. Hydrogen fuel burns clean, so it has potential as a low-carbon energy source depending on how its made. The system also applies to hydrogen. Today, most hydrogen is known as grayhydrogen. This could aid climate goals because hydrogen only emits water when burned and can be made without releasing CO2. Commercialization of e-methanols two inputs, carbon from direct air or point source capture and hydrogen from renewable energy powered electrolysis, is nascent, and there is a limited supply of sustainable biomass for cellulosic bio-methanol. natural gas; bio-methane. Certified green hydrogen requires an emission reduction of >60-70% (depending on the certification body) below the benchmark emissions intensity threshold (= GHG emissions of grey hydrogen, for example benchmark values according to the renewable energy directive RED II). They can produce, respectively, 3,000 tonnes and 1,300 tonnes of hydrogen a year. The output is hydrogen but also carbon dioxide as a by-product. Hydrogen is generally divided into three different types, depending on the carbon intensity of the production process: Gray hydrogen is produced from fossil fuels through steam reforming. The Program has been researching and developing hydrogen and fuel cell technologies because they have the potential to reduce U.S. dependence on foreign crude oil, diversify energy sources, decrease greenhouse gas WTW GHG emissions are highly sensitive to the electricity grid carbon intensity; this is relevant for both hydrogen and battery electric vehicles. Definition. A prototype of a hydrogen fuel-cell-powered aircraft. A modern SMR plant produces between nine and 11kg COe per kg hydrogen; this is grey hydrogen. That means carbon capture and storage (CCS) is essential to trap and store this carbon.

The 13 Mt of hydrogen currently produced by refineries will decline to about 11 Mt by 2050. NREL Hydrogen Analysis Blue hydrogen is produced when natural gas is split into hydrogen and CO2 either by steam methane reforming (SMR) or autothermal Reforming (ATR) with the CO2 captured and stored. By the early 2030s, mass deployment of green hydrogen may have begun in that part of the world. Consultants estimate that However, storage is costly and has logistical challenges. In the short-term, green hydrogen costs are being reported in the range of 2.5-6 USD/kg H2. Enbridge Gas will use the project to study the use of hydrogen to decarbonize natural gas and thereby reduce greenhouse gas emissions. 2021-01-0047. In my recent blog on different colours of hydrogen I included a hierarchy of carbon intensity. Treehugger has often been skeptical of two "silver bullets" for the climate crisis: the hydrogen economy and carbon capture and storage (CCS). Brian Anderson, Ph.D., Director at NETL, said: The potential for hydrogen to play a significant role as the global energy system transitions to a lower carbon intensity is vast. 4 technologies that are accelerating the green hydrogen revolution; Grey, blue, green (4)Skilled labor and the use of existing infrastructure are essential to the deployment of clean hydrogen throughout our economy. Grey hydrogen. nuclear energy: lignite coal. In 2018, grey and brown hydrogen represented 99% of global hydrogen production, while production of green and blue was nascent.6 When using natural gas as a feedstock (i.e. A chemical reaction occurs creating hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Production from water via electrolysis with sustainable electricity from sun and wind is a CO 2 -free alternative. Adding conventional carbon capture and storage to SMR (to produce blue hydrogen) can reduce the carbon intensity to between 1.5 and 5kg COe per kg hydrogen, depending on how much carbon capture is undertaken. In a hydrogen economy, hydrogen would be used in place of the fossil fuels that currently provide four-fifths of the worlds energy supply and emit the bulk of global greenhouse gas emissions. Today, grey hydrogen costs around 1.50 kg 1, blue hydrogen 23 kg 1 and green hydrogen 3.506 kg 1. Brown or grey hydrogen production combined with carbon capture and storage/sequestration might be referred to as blue hydrogen. Details. Its derived from natural gas using an energy-intensive process that emits a lot of carbon dioxide.

The assumptions for each scenario are described in Appendix 1. TotalEnergies has the ambition to decarbonize 100% of grey hydrogen consumed in its European Refineries with Low Carbon Hydrogen or Renewable Hydrogen by 2030. This report calculates the carbon intensity of RD produced at Green Apple Renewable Fuels, LLC using a variety of renewable lipid feedstocks. Hydrogen is primarily divided into the colours green, turquoise, blue and grey. The Japanese government has also formulated stringent cost targets for clean hydrogen by 2040. The 13 Mt of hydrogen currently produced by refineries will decline to about 11 Mt by 2050. This hydrogen-gas blending unit will be constructed adjacent to the existing power-to-gas (P2G) electrolysis facility in Markham, built in 2018 with financial support from the Canadian government. In a hydrogen economy, hydrogen would be used in place of the fossil fuels that currently provide four-fifths of the worlds energy supply and emit the bulk of global greenhouse gas emissions. In these favourable locations, such as Australia, the cost of green H 2 is expected to fall to $1 per kg by 2030, according to the ETC report, Making the Hydrogen Economy Possible: Accelerating Clean Hydrogen in an Electrified Economy. Article content. Carbon intensity is colour blind.